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Pavlov was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his classical conditioning. He enrolled in the physics and mathematics faculty at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1870 to take the course in natural science. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1904. He is most famous for the "conditioned reflex" in which he examined the rates of salivation among dogs. He learned that dogs would salivate when food was presented and a metronome sound was made. The dog later came to associate the metronome sound with the presentation of food. Karpovich (1896-1975) was born in Russia and trained as a medical doctor at the State Military Academy of Medicine in Petrograd (St. Petersburg), Russia in 1919. Under increasing political and professional turmoil, he fled to Latvia in 1922. In Latvia, Karpovich worked at the Riga YMCA. In 1925, he traveled to the United States to research at Springfield College. While there, he enrolled as a special advanced student and earned a master’s degree in physical education. In 1927, while completing his studies, he became a professor of physiology at the college. In the late 1940s, he met and married his second wife, Josephine Rathbone, an acclaimed scholar of physical education and relaxation. From 1961 to 1969, he served as the director of the physiology research laboratory at Springfield College, where he published several seminal books. Karpovich was a founding member of the American College of Sports Medicine and a consultant to many government, private and educational organizations. He remains an internationally recognized pioneer in physical education.
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